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Главная   Статьи   Справедливость и принятие решений, часть 3

Справедливость и принятие решений, часть 3

Несправедливый ультиматум.

Вы летите в самолете, справа от вас – эксцентрично выглядящая женщина (Вивиан), слева от вас – мужчина в костюме (Марк). Через 30 минут после начала полета, женщина обращается к вам и Марку. Она говорит, что заскучала и предлагает вам с Марком поучаствовать в игре. Она достает из кошелька 50 $100 купюр и говорит: «Я дам вам двоим эти $5,000, если вы сможете поделить их. Однако, в разделении денег будeт два правила. Во-первых, Марк примет решение касательно того, как вы разделите деньги. Затем вы, читатель, решите, принимаете ли вы такое разделение денег. Если вы принимаете данное разделение, то вы получаете $5000 на двоих в пропорции, установленной Марком. Если вы не принимаете – тогда деньги не получает никто». Вы и Марк соглашаетесь участвовать в игре. Марк думает одно мгновение и затем говорит: «Я предлагаю разделить $5000 таким образом: я получаю $4900, а вы получаете $100». Согласитесь ли вы на такие условия?

Большинство людей в этой ситуации не соглашаются на такие условия. Отказ от получения $100 нерационален с экономической точки зрения. Причина, по которой люди отказываются от получения $100, заключается в том, что они не принимают условия неравного разделения денег и не хотят, чтобы Марк получил $4900. Или же, они хотят наказать Марка за то, что он предложил такую несправедливую сделку. Если бы люди были полностью рациональны и не подвержены влиянию справедливости, они бы взяли $100 или даже меньше, так как данная сумма больше 0.

Когда такие деловые игры проводятся на самом деле, большинство игроков предлагает поделить деньги поровну. В среднем, игрок, принимающий решение о том, как поделить, берет себе менее 70%.

Почему важно понимать такие вещи.

Людям важно, что происходит с другими. Люди могут заплатить за нанесение вреда врагу, или же пожертвовать чем-то для того, чтобы помочь ценным людям. В добавок, людям важно знать, как их вознаграждение сопоставляется с вознаграждениями других. Понимая, что у сотрудников возникают подобные беспокойства, организации тщательно создают системы компенсации. Зарплата и бонусы тщательно продумываются, чтобы у сотрудников было восприятие того, что они справедливо компенсируются за приложенные усилия. Более того, организации стремятся скрывать информацию о зарплатах, чтобы избежать социальных сравнений и восприятия несправедливости. Существуют даже научные исследования, которые показывают, что справедливость компенсации и качество продуктов компании имеют положительную корреляцию.

Основано на материалах профессора Гарвардской Школы Бизнеса, Макса Базермана.

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