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Главная   Статьи   Справедливость и принятие решений, часть 2

Справедливость и принятие решений, часть 2

Почему в некоторых компаниях плохой климат в коллективе? Это может быть связано с тем, что сотрудники считают деньги в чужом кармане. Согласно научно доказанным предрасположенностям, каждый участник группы считает, что он вкладывается больше, чем остальные участники. В добавок к этому, если за равное количество выполненной работы, одному сотруднику заплатят больше, чем другому, и все об этом узнают, сотрудники негативно отреагируют на воспринимаемую несправедливость.

Эффект заявления прав на большее (Overclaiming credit).

В одном из исследований, супружеские пары спросили, кто выполняет большую часть работы по дому – выносит мусор, моет посуду, и т.д. Когда проценты, предоставленные мужьями и женами были сложены, средняя сумма составила 140%. Даже честные и порядочные сотрудники считают, что они вкладывают в организацию больше, чем они вкладывают на самом деле. Одним из препятствий для развития партнерских отношений является сомнение в том, насколько качественно другая сторона выполняет свою часть работы. Таким образом, так как каждый из партнеров считает, что он вкладывается больше чем другой партнер. Вследствие этого парадокса восприятия, каждый партнер хочет получать больше и работать меньше.

В одном из исследований, ученые решили просчитать, сколько работы студенты выполняют в своих группах. Когда проценты были просуммированы, они складывались к 139%. Таким образом, в среднем, участники группы верили, что они совместно выполнили 139% работы из 100% возможных. Однако, когда участников группы попросили озвучить их вклад в групповой проект в присутствии других участников группы, сумма процентов, на которые претендуют участники группы, упала до 121%. Таким образом, разбор того, кто и сколько усилий вложил в проект, позволяет осознать данную предрасположенность и уменьшить ее эффект. Чем на большее участники группы претендуют, тем меньше они склонны работать совместно в будущем.

Если научить участников группы видеть ситуацию с разных позиций, эффект данной предрасположенности можно уменьшить, что повысит производительность работы группы. В следующий раз, когда ваш коллега скажет, что он выполнил большую часть работы группы, перед тем как спорить, подумайте, является ли ваше желание спорить следствием данной предрасположенности. К тому же помните, что ваш коллега может выражаться подобным образом потому, что сам находится под воздействием данной предрасположенности, а не потому, что хочет нечестным образом отобрать ваши достижения.

Основано на материалах профессора Гарвардской Школы Бизнеса, Макса Базермана.


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